Der seit an den Berliner Museen als Restaurator tätige Jakob Schlesinger könnte Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (–) über dessen Freund. Ute Welty: Als Georg Friedrich Wilhelm Hegel vor Jahren geboren wird, brechen immer wieder Seuchen aus: Pocken, Pest, Fleckfieber. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. * Stuttgart, † Berlin. Abbildung. Privatdozent. ao. Professor.
Hegel und seine Philosophie des WeltgeistesGeorg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. * Stuttgart, † Berlin. Abbildung. Privatdozent. ao. Professor. SWR2 Redakteur Wilm Hüffer beschäftigt sich schon lange mit Hegels Philosophie und hat die neuerschienene Literatur zum Hegel-Jubiläum gelesen. Hegel –. Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Philosoph, * Stuttgart, †
Georg Hegel Menu navigasi VideoKaum Sofis - Yang Ada adalah Ketiadaan Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, – November 14, ) was a German philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality as a whole revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, – November 14, ) was a German philosopher, the main representative of nineteenth century German Idealism, and one of the major thinkers in the history of Western philosophy. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, the German philosopher who would go on to be one of the most famous thinkers of his era, was born on August 27, , in Stuttgart, in southwest Germany. His parents. Hegel was born on 27 August in Stuttgart, capital of the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, he was known as Wilhelm to his close family. His father, Georg Ludwig, was Rentkammersekretär (secretary to the revenue office) at the court of Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg. Hegel, however, found in love, conceived as a union of opposites, a prefigurement of spirit as the unity in which contradictions, such as infinite and finite, are embraced and synthesized.
81 Das Spiel Muskel Frauen Grundschulkindern in der Muskel Frauen. - Hegel – überholt oder aktuell?Philosophiebibliographie: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel — Zusätzliche Literaturhinweise zum Thema.
Around the turn of the century, however, under the influence of Hölderlin and Schelling, his interests turned more to issues arising from the critical philosophy initiated by Immanuel Kant — and developed by J.
Fichte — In the s the University of Jena had become a center for the development of critical philosophy due to the presence of K. Reinhold — and then Fichte, who taught there from until his dismissal on the grounds of atheism at the end of the decade.
By that time, Schelling, who had first been attracted to Jena by the presence of Fichte, had become an established figure at the university.
By late Hegel had completed his first major work, the Phenomenology of Spirit published , which showed a divergence from his earlier, seemingly more Schellingian, approach.
Now without a university appointment he worked for a short time, apparently very successfully, as an editor of a newspaper in Bamberg, and then from — as the headmaster and philosophy teacher at a gymnasium high school in Nuremberg.
During his time at Nuremberg he married and started a family, and wrote and published his Science of Logic. In he managed to return to his university career by being appointed to a chair in philosophy at the University of Heidelberg, but shortly after, in , he was offered and took up the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin, the most prestigious position in the German philosophical world.
In , while in Heidelberg he published the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences , a systematic work in which an abbreviated version of the earlier Science of Logic the Encyclopaedia Logic or Lesser Logic was followed by the application of its principles to the philosophy of nature and the philosophy of spirit.
In in Berlin Hegel published his major work in political philosophy, Elements of the Philosophy of Right , based on lectures given at Heidelberg but ultimately grounded in the section of the Encyclopaedia Philosophy of Spirit dealing with objective spirit.
During the following ten years up to his death in Hegel enjoyed celebrity at Berlin, and published subsequent versions of the Encyclopaedia.
After his death versions of his lectures on philosophy of history, philosophy of religion, aesthetics, and the history of philosophy were published.
Hegel himself had been a supporter of progressive but non-revolutionary politics, but his followers divided into factions broadly groupable as those of the left, right and centre Toews ; from the left , Karl Marx was to develop his own purported scientific approach to society and history which appropriated many Hegelian ideas into a materialistic outlook.
Later, especially in reaction to orthodox Soviet versions of Marxism, many so-called Western Marxists re-incorporated further Hegelian elements back into their forms of Marxist philosophy.
In academic philosophy, Hegelian idealism had seemed to collapse dramatically after and the failure of the revolutionary movements of that year, but underwent a revival in both Great Britain and the United States in the last decades of the nineteenth century.
In Britain, where philosophers such as T. Green and F. However, a later generation of French philosophers coming to prominence in the s tended to react against Hegel in ways analogous to those in which early analytic philosophers had reacted against the Hegel who had influenced their predecessors.
In Germany, having lapsed in the second half of the nineteenth century, interest in Hegel was revived at the turn of the twentieth with the historical work of Wilhelm Dilthey, and important Hegelian elements were incorporated within the approaches of thinkers of the Frankfurt School, such as Theodor Adorno, and later, Jürgen Habermas, as well as within the Heidegger-influenced hermeneutic approach of H.
In the s the German philosopher Klaus Hartmann developed what was termed a non-metaphysical interpretation of Hegel which, together with the work of Dieter Henrich and others, played an important role in the revival of interest in Hegel in academic philosophy in the second half of the century.
Harris, Charles Taylor, Robert Pippin and Terry Pinkard in North America, and Stephen Houlgate and Robert Stern in Great Britain. By the close of the twentieth century, even within core logico-metaphysical areas of analytic philosophy, a number of individuals such as Robert Brandom and John McDowell had started to take Hegel seriously as a significant modern philosopher, although generally within analytic circles a favorable reassessment of Hegel has still a long way to go.
The contents of philosophical knowledge, we might suspect, will come from the historically changing contents of its cultural context. On the other, there is the hint of such contents being raised to some higher level, presumably higher than other levels of cognitive functioning such as those based in everyday perceptual experience, for example, or those characteristic of other areas of culture such as art and religion.
This higher level takes the form of conceptually articulated thought , a type of cognition commonly taken as capable of having purportedly eternal contents think of Plato and Frege, for example, who both have the truths of mathematics in mind.
In line with such a conception, Hegel sometimes referred to the task of philosophy as that of recognising the concept Der Begriff in the mere representations Vorstellungen of everyday life.
In contrast, the British Hegelian movement at the end of the nineteenth century tended to ignore the Phenomenology and the more historicist dimensions of his thought, and found in Hegel a systematic metaphysician whose Logic provided the basis for a definitive philosophical ontology.
This latter traditional metaphysical view of Hegel dominated Hegel reception for most of the twentieth century, but from the s came to be challenged by scholars who offered an alternative non-metaphysical, post-Kantian view.
But in turn, this post-Kantian reading has been challenged by a revised metaphysical view, critical of the purported over -assimilation of Hegel to Kant by the post-Kantians.
Thus, for example, Leibniz had contrasted Plato as an idealist with Epicurus as a materialist. The opposition to materialism here, together with the fact that in the English-speaking world the Irish philosopher and clergyman George Berkeley — is often taken as a prototypical idealist, has given rise to the assumption that idealism is necessarily an immaterialist doctrine.
This assumption, however, is mistaken. The type of picture found in Berkeley was only to be found in certain late antique Platonists and, especially, early Christian Platonists like Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo.
It thus had features closer to the more pantheistic picture of divine thought found in Spinoza, for example, for whom matter and mind were attributes of the one substance.
The materialists to which he was opposed mechanistic corpuscularists of his time conceived of unformed matter as a type of self-subsistent substance, and it seems to have been that conception to which he was opposed, at least in some periods of his work, not the reality of matter per se.
Given the understanding of Hegel that predominated at the time of the birth of analytic philosophy, together with the fact that early analytic philosophers were rebelling precisely against Hegelianism so understood, the interpretation of Hegel encountered in discussions within analytic philosophy is often that of the late nineteenth-century interpretation.
In this picture, Hegel is seen as offering a metaphysico-religious view of God qua Absolute Spirit, as the ultimate reality that we can come to know through pure thought processes alone.
Indeed, Hegel often seems to invoke imagery consistent with the types of neo-Platonic conceptions of the universe that had been common within Christian mysticism, especially in the German states, in the early modern period.
Thus, in our consciousness of God, we somehow serve to realize his own self-consciousness, and, thereby, his own perfection. In English-language interpretations, such a picture is effectively found in the work of Charles Taylor and Michael Rosen , for example.
With its dark mystical roots, and its overtly religious content, it is hardly surprising that the philosophy of Hegel so understood has rarely been regarded as a live option within the largely secular and scientific conceptions of philosophy that have been dominant in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
To critics, such as Karl Popper in his popular post-war The Open Society and its Enemies , Hegel had not only advocated a disastrous political conception of the state and the relation of its citizens to it, a conception prefiguring twentieth-century totalitarianism, but he had also tried to underpin such advocacy with dubious theo-logico-metaphysical speculations.
With his idea of the development of spirit in history, Hegel is seen as literalising a way of talking about different cultures in terms of their spirits, of constructing a developmental sequence of epochs typical of nineteenth-century ideas of linear historical progress, and then enveloping this story of human progress in terms of one about the developing self-conscious of the cosmos-God itself.
The pantheistic legacy inherited by Hegel meant that he had no problem in considering an objective outer world beyond any particular subjective mind.
But this objective world itself had to be understood as conceptually informed: it was objectified spirit. Thus in contrast to Berkeleian subjective idealism it became common to talk of Hegel as incorporating the objective idealism of views, especially common among German historians, in which social life and thought were understood in terms of the conceptual or spiritual structures that informed them.
But in contrast to both forms of idealism, Hegel, according to this reading, postulated a form of absolute idealism by including both subjective life and the objective cultural practices on which subjective life depended within the dynamics of the development of the self-consciousness and self-actualisation of God, the Absolute Spirit.
Despite this seemingly dominant theological theme, Hegel was still seen by many as an important precursor of other more characteristically secular strands of modern thought such as existentialism and Marxist materialism.
Existentialists were thought of as taking the idea of the finitude and historical and cultural dependence of individual subjects from Hegel, and as leaving out all pretensions to the Absolute, while Marxists were thought of as taking the historical dynamics of the Hegelian picture but reinterpreting this in materialist rather than idealist categories.
As for understanding Hegel himself, the traditional metaphysical view remained the dominant interpretative approach of Hegel scholars throughout much of the twentieth century.
Thus it is commonly asserted that implicit within the metaphysical Hegel is an anti-metaphysical philosopher struggling to get out—one potentially capable of beating the critical Kant at his own game.
More controversially, one now finds it argued that the traditional picture is simply wrong at a more general level, and that Hegel, even in his systematic thought, was not committed to the bizarre, teleological spirit monism that has been traditionally attributed to him because he was free of the type of traditional metaphysical commitments that had been criticized by Kant.
Prominent among such interpretations has been the so-called post-Kantian interpretation advanced by North American Hegel scholars Robert Pippin , , and Terry Pinkard , , From an explicitly analytic perspective, broadly similar views have been put forward by Robert Brandom , , and John McDowell , With this notion, it is claimed, Hegel was essentially attempting to answer the Kantian question of the conditions of rational human mindedness, rather than being concerned with giving an account of the developing self-consciousness of God.
But while Kant had limited such conditions to formal abstractly conceived structures of the mind, Hegel extended them to include aspects of historically and socially determined forms of embodied human existence.
Proponents of the post-Kantian view, it is commonly said, are guilty of projecting onto Hegel views they would like to find there rather than what is actually to be found.
Here one tends to find interpreters attributing to Hegel some type of conceptual realism, sometimes appealing to contemporary analytic metaphysics for the legitimacy of metaphysics conceived as inquiry into the fundamental features or structures of the world itself.
Among the interpreters advancing something like this revised metaphysical view might be counted Stephen Houlgate b , Robert Stern , , Kenneth Westphal , James Kreines , and Christopher Yeomans On a number of points, the proponents of the revised conceptual realist metaphysical interpretation will agree with advocates of the post-Kantian non-metaphysical approach.
First, they tend to agree in dismissing much of the extravagant metaphysics traditionally ascribed to Hegel. While it is for the most part clear what sets both post-Kantians and conceptual realists against the traditional view, it is still not clear which issues dividing them are substantive and which are ultimately verbal.
Brandom, for example, while often classed with the post-Kantians, also construes Hegel as a conceptual realist Brandom , while Redding, appealing to the earlier work of J.
Findlay, attempts to combine the post-Kantian approach with what he calls an actualist rather than a realist interpretation of Hegel Redding In recent work, both Pippin and Pinkard , the major representatives of the post-Kantian position, have insisted that their own interpretations are compatible with many of the Aristotelian features of Hegel to which conceptual realists allude.
In relation to such debates it must be remembered that Kant himself was not critical of metaphysics per se. His claim was that existing so-called dogmatic metaphysics was in a state analogous to that in which, say, physics had been in before the scientific revolution of sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Rather than wanting to eliminate metaphysics, after the style, say, of Hume or the modern logical positivists, Kant had wanted to put metaphysics itself on a secure scientific basis analogous to what Galileo and Newton had achieved for physics.
In the next category are works that were published at the time as handbooks for use in student teaching such as the Encyclopaedia of Philosophical Sciences first published in while he was teaching at Heidelberg and subsequently revised and republished in and again in , and Elements of the Philosophy of Right , effectively an expansion of a section of the Encyclopaedia and published in after his move to Berlin.
Transcripts of his earlier lectures on this topic delivered in Heidelberg have also since been published.
Along with the Encyclopaedia and the Philosophy of Right might be added similar teaching-related writings from the Jena period, prepared as lectures but only published as such much later.
Here we will restrict the discussion to the first three categories. The term clearly suited Kant as he had distinguished the phenomena known through the faculty of sensibility from the noumena known purely conceptually.
It is meant to function as an induction or education of the reader to the standpoint of purely conceptual thought from which philosophy can be done.
As such, its structure has been compared to that of a Bildungsroman educational novel , having an abstractly conceived protagonist—the bearer of an evolving series of so-called shapes of consciousness or the inhabitant of a series of successive phenomenal worlds—whose progress and set-backs the reader follows and learns from.
Or at least this is how the work sets out: in the later sections the earlier series of shapes of consciousness becomes replaced with what seem more like configurations of human social life , and the work comes to look more like an account of interlinked forms of social existence and thought within which participants in such forms of social life conceive of themselves and the world.
Hegel constructs a series of such shapes that maps onto the history of western European civilization from the Greeks to his own time.
As a metaphor for this, Hegel used the growth cycle of a plant, whose stages occur according to an inner principle. Hegel saw history as following a predetermined logic that repeatedly led to contradictions and revolutions.
He was convinced it was dialectic processes of change that consistently brought humanity, and thus history, one step further. Hegel also applied his theory of becoming to the idea of God.
It earned him few friends, especially within the Catholic Church, as he believed that God as an entity had not simply always existed as is, but had rather become what is over time: a "world spirit" "Weltgeist" that contains and unites all the preceding epochs within it.
When he subsequently dismissed the Catholic dogma of transubstantiation — the physical transformation during a mass of bread and wine into the body and blood of Jesus Christ — he was forced to recant his statement and officially apologize.
Left-leaning thinkers later used Hegel's philosophy as the starting point for dialectical materialism, which emphasizes the importance of real-world conditions separate from the mind.
Two of the theory's key thinkers, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, were significantly influenced by Hegel, further developing and applying it to class competition.
For his part, Hegel considered enlightened absolutism, the major political ideology of his era, to be the crowning final achievement of the change process, with the Prussian state offering the greatest freedom possible.
Hegel died on November 14, , in Berlin, most likely due to chronic stomach issues. His idea of a "world being," however, lived on.
When Friedrich Nietzsche died years ago, he missed the chance to enjoy fame — and notoriety — that was just beginning to grow.
Hegel works out this conception in an exegesis of passages in the Gospel According to John. The kingdom, however, can never be realized in this world: humans are not spirit alone but flesh also.
Kant had argued that humans can have knowledge only of a finite world of appearances and that, whenever their reason attempts to go beyond this sphere and grapple with the infinite or with ultimate reality, it becomes entangled in insoluble contradictions.
Hegel, however, found in love, conceived as a union of opposites, a prefigurement of spirit as the unity in which contradictions, such as infinite and finite, are embraced and synthesized.
Beginning in the s after the fall of the Soviet Union, a fresh reading of Hegel took place in the West.
For these scholars, fairly well represented by the Hegel Society of America and in cooperation with German scholars such as Otto Pöggeler and Walter Jaeschke, Hegel's works should be read without preconceptions.
Marx plays little-to-no role in these new readings. American philosophers associated with this movement include Lawrence Stepelevich , Rudolf Siebert , Richard Dien Winfield and Theodore Geraets.
Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries. Moore , Franz Rosenzweig , Eric Voegelin and A. Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives.
Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th-century German group known as the Young Hegelians , which included Feuerbach, Marx, Engels and their followers.
In Britain, the Hegelian British idealism school members of which included Francis Herbert Bradley , Bernard Bosanquet and in the United States Josiah Royce was challenged and rejected by analytic philosophers Moore and Russell.
In particular, Russell considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking".
A guardian fearing that his ward might become too intelligent for his schemes might prevent this misfortune by innocently suggesting the reading of Hegel.
Karl Popper wrote that "there is so much philosophical writing especially in the Hegelian school which may justly be criticised as meaningless verbiage".
Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century, whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist.
Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri have criticized Popper's theories about Hegel. Voegelin argued that Hegel should be understood not as a philosopher, but as a "sorcerer", i.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hegel disambiguation. Portrait by Jakob Schlesinger , Stuttgart , Duchy of Württemberg.
Berlin , Kingdom of Prussia. Gymnasium illustre zu Stuttgart Tübinger Stift , University of Tübingen MA ,  University of Jena PhD , Continental philosophy German idealism Objective idealism Absolute idealism Hegelianism Historicism  Naturphilosophie Epistemic coherentism  Conceptualism  Empirical realism  Coherence theory of truth .
University of Jena — University of Heidelberg — University of Berlin — Metaphysics Epistemology Naturphilosophie Philosophy of history Ethics Political philosophy Logic Aesthetics.
Aristotle Böhme Diderot  Ferguson  Fichte Goethe Heraclitus Herder  Kant Luther  Plato Rousseau Spinoza Schelling Schiller Adam Smith .
Main article: Science of Logic. See also: Porphyrian tree. See also: Civil society. See also: Hegelianism. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Thesis, antithesis, synthesis.
Main article: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bibliography. Philosophy portal. Dialectical idealism " God is dead " Hegel-Archiv Political consciousness Process theology Pure thought Rudy Rucker , the great-great-great-grandson of Hegel.
Daniel Breazeale. In Breazeale, Daniel; Fichte, Johann Fichte: Early Philosophical Writings. Cornell University Press.
The Coherence Theory of Truth. Stanford University. Luft, Hegel's Shorter Logic : An Introduction and Commentary , Gegensatz Press, , p. Hegel, Phänomenologie des Geistes , "Vorrede": "Das Wahre ist das Ganze.
Hegel, Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts , "Vorrede": "Was vernünftig ist, das ist Wirklich; und was wirklich ist, das ist vernünftig.
Hegel, Wissenschaft der Logik , "Erster Teil: Zweites Buch": "Die Wahrheit des Seyns ist das Wesen" ["The truth of being is essence.
Hegel, Vorlesungen über de Geschichte der Philosophie , Part 3, Duncker und Humblot, , pp. II, Meiner, , pp. Stekeler-Weithofer , "Hegel's Analytic Pragmatism" , University of Leipzig, pp.
Forster, After Herder: Philosophy of Language in the German Tradition , Oxford University Press, , p.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 5 February Journal of the History of Economic Thought. Subjects of desire: Hegelian reflections in twentieth-century France.
New York: Columbia University Press. The Descent of Ideas: The History of Intellectual History. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
Duden in German. Retrieved 18 October Phenomenological Reviews. Retrieved 3 September It does not occur anywhere in The Science of Logic though he comes close in a remark on p.
Greraets, Suchting and Harris note in the introduction to their translation of this later text that the term is more strongly associated with English movement in that later part of the 19th century Hackett: , xiii.
Solomon , In the Spirit of Hegel , Oxford University Press, p. Translated by Breazeale, Daniel. Retrieved 17 April Jahrhundert , Harper, Herbert L.
Hegel, Hegel and the Greeks. Richard Rojcewicz , Ponderings XII-XV: Black Notebooks — , Indiana University Press, , p.
David Krell , Nietzsche , New York: HarperCollins, , p. Hegel: A Biography. Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge Companion to Hegel.
Phenomenology and System. A Search for Unity in Diversity: The "Permanent Hegelian Deposit" in the Philosophy of John Dewey.
Lexington Books. Archived from the original PDF on 8 October Retrieved 9 August Hegel, Dissertatio philosophica de Orbitis Planetarum.
Hegel, Philosophical Dissertation on the Orbits of the Planets. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Bibcode : JHA The letter was not published in Hegel's time, but the expression was attributed to Hegel anecdotally, appearing in print from L.
Noack, Schelling und die Philosophie der Romantik , , p. It is used without attribution by Meyer Kayserling in his Sephardim , and is apparently not recognized as a reference to Hegel by the reviewer in Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen 2 p.
The phrase become widely associated with Hegel later in the 19th century, e. Baur in Reden gehalten in der Aula der Universität Leipzig beim Rectoratswechsel am October , p.
Hegel, letter of 13 October to F. Niethammer, no. Hoffmeister, vol. Schnädelbach in Wolfgang Welsch, Klaus Vieweg eds. Pinkard A Companion to Heidegger.
Wrathall, Mark A. Critique of Pure Reason. Hegel's Science of Logic. Miller, Arnold V. Amherst, N. Hegel's science of logic. Explore More Quotes.
Top 42 Dante Alighieri Quotes About Life LOVE Jeremiah Say October 16, February 2, Dalam logika Hegel rakyat harus menjadi abdi negara untuk kebaikan dan kesehjahtraan masyarakat itu sendiri.
Dalam konsep negara integralistik, negara adalah kesatuan masyarakat yang tersusun secara integral. Masyarakat merupakan kesatuan organis yang tidak terpisah dan bergerak bersama kedalam satu tujuan tunggal yang hakiki.
Dalam proses penemuan tujuan hakiki ini, pemimpin berperan sebagai kepala yang akan menuntun pergerakan dari unsur-unsur organis lainnya, sehingga tercipta keselarasan antara pimpinan dan rakyat.
Hegel dikenal sebagai filsuf yang menggunakan dialektika sebagai metode berfilsafat. Dialektika menurut Hegel adalah dua hal yang dipertentangkan lalu didamaikan, atau biasa dikenal dengan tesis pengiyaan , antitesis pengingkaran dan sintesis kesatuan kontradiksi.
Pengiyaan harus berupa konsep pengertian yang empiris indrawi. Pengertian yang terkandung di dalamnya berasal dari kata-kata sehari-hari, spontan, bukan reflektif sehingga terkesan abstrak, umum, statis dan konseptual.
Pengertian tersebut diterangkan secara radikal agar dalam proses pemikirannya kehilangan ketegasan dan mencair.